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Assessment and Management of Legacy Petroleum Wells New South Wales

This is a continuing action item regarding the monitoring of plugged and abandoned petroleum wells in NSW. We are using this website until an official “People for the Plains” website is up an running to reference all past, present and future Narrabri Gas Project CCC information.

Whilst on this site, make yourself at home and take a look at some older posts regarding Coal Seam Gas in the Pilliga, NSW, Australia.

Click on the link below to view the report, which is approximately 5MB.



CSG and Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

Sulphate-reducing Bacteria cell


Bacteria the Hidden Danger of CSG (below are just some of those dangers and what some of those effected and studying these bacteria have to say):

Coal Seam Gas water harbours dangers that few fully understand, but the CSG Companies, Drilling Companies and the NSW and Australian Federal Governments understand these only too well, and yet these groups have closed their minds to the potential risks that the CSG Industry posess via the production water, not only to the health of the Nation and to the Natural Environment but to the Humans and all air breathing animals.
The effects of the Bacteria released  from the Coal Seam produced water is not confined to the areas of Coal Seam Gas Exploration and Production, but can spread out as when an Aquifer becomes infected with larger numbers of the Sulphate-reducing Bacteria than the natural enemies and consumers of this bacteria can cope with. Then there will be no stopping of the exponential growth of this life preventing Bacteria through-out the entire subterranean water system. The movement of  Sulphate-reducing Bacteria infected Drills Rig when moved from one area to another as well as infected Earth-moving machinery is another way that this Bacteria and its friends are moved from one infected area to a non-infected area, and so the spread of this potentially life threatening Bacteria goes on.

This release of Coal Seam confined and isolated Sulphate-reducing Bacteria, along with the stimulation of the unconfined but naturally controlled surface Sulphate-reducing Bacteria, has already occured in many parts of the world, and is now showing to have very real and big problems that are getting out of control and can only get worse as the CSG Companies try to keep up with a disaster of their own making.
I have sited an actual and well documented experience of the effect of released excess SRB into the environment from a discharge of raw CS Water which supposedly occurred in Julyof 2011 (????), at a site known as the Bibblewindi Gas and Water Gathering Facility located in the Pilliga East State Forest of NSW, Australia. The area of Exploration was in the hands of Eastern Star Gas until November 2011, when SANTOS who was a 35% partner, bought them out.
Santos, at first denied that a spill had occurred, and disputed the Soil Analysis and Water Analysis as done by ‘others’ on the effected area, only to do their own Soil only testing a few weeks later. The results proved to be worse than the one done by ‘others’.  Santos claimed that there was no water available for testing and so no water tests were carried out. The original water Analysis, do by others, did not include a Bacterial Analysis as the importance of Bacterial Infestation was not known at the time. The first, and as far as SORE is aware, the only Bacterial Analysis was carried out by SORE in July of 2012. The results of this analysis revealed very high counts of SRB, acceptable levels of E.coli and Faecal Coliforms, high levels of Napthhalene and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria as well as a healthy level of Methanogenic Bacteria (230 Methanogen/100mL).  A stock and domestic water bore tested in the area {not SORE’s} had <4 Methanogen/100mL..

But I digress from the SRB problem:    
Even the simple act of misguided test-plot assessment by Santos using Gypsum (Calcium Sulphate dihydrate) mixed into the soil containing the Sulphate-reducing Bacteria caused a major population increase of the SRB, so much so that they can be seen as a white covering on the area of exposed surface of the test plots.
No where is this continued Santos stupidity more evident than in the Pilliga State Forest of NSW Australia, where Santos is attempted in a number of places to rehabilitate the areas effected by spilt CSG water containing the Sulphate-reducing Bacteria and other Bacteria, with Gypsum and wood chips.
At the Bibblewindi Gas and Water Gathering  Santos had never did a water analysis of the area effected so they were completely blind to any Bacterial problems, and when presented with an Analysis of the water Sulphate-reducing Bacteria, by SORE, went into a tail spin and complete panic.  The natural water hole where the water sample was taken had, twice dried up completely between January of 2012  and July 2012 and when sampled had a Sulphate- reducing Bacteria count of 92,000 SRB/100mL., no wonder the test plot containing the Gypsum went white, these guys were having a feast, not only on the Organic Carbon in the soil, but on the Gypsum that was laid before them.  Santos had no idea thatSulphate-reducing Bacteria could live and thrive in moist soils of a surface Aquafer provided that there was no oxygen to kill them off. Thesoils of the Pilliga State Forest are the type that when wet, turn to slush all the way to the clay barrier (as a surface Aquifer does when full of water) and when dry set a very hard surface layer that even oxygen cannot penetrate to any great depth. But spill the saline Coal Seam Water on them and they react in such a manner as to set a impervious top covering even on the exposed and normally loose pure sand areas, just the ideal conditions for the various bacteria to survive and multiply. Plenty of organic Carbon, no natural enemies (their own by-products as well as the human administered biocide took care of that), water to flow and spread with as well as providing nutrients, and the whole of the soil was devoid of Oxygen once the soil top dried out and set hard. What more could a Bacteria want.
Santos was so intent on future exploration and the money and time lost in a botched attempt to do a show piece rehabilitation, that once confronted by the truth of their failure by others, went into such a tail spin as to try and cover up their error and stupidity, by convincing the Authorities to allow the mixing of Cypress Pine and Iron Bark chips and mulch into the Gypsum/soil mix. This was done to fool the public as to what had really been the result of the placing of SRB food, Gypsum, into the soil.
This however, did not work, and at the Bibblewindi Gas and Water Gathering Facility site Santos has now dug up all the soil down to the clay barrier and stored this Sulphate-reducing Bacteria and other Bacteria infected soil, in Lined, Bunded and covered Bunkers.


Gypsum-test-patch-BGWTGF- note white only on plots with Gypsum added 4-11-12

  BGWGF infected area dug out 14-12-12 and still the same  as of 26-12-12

BGWTGF-before-tree-removal- 10-12                         BGWTGF-trees removed and Gypsum put into soil-1st. attempt rehab. 4-11-12

 So much for Gypsum being a top quality Rehabilitation Method, especially when Sulphate-reducing Bacteria are around.

An important point to note, is that the area of soil dug out is regarded as an Aquifer under the definition of an Aquifer as given in the NSW Aquifer Interference Policy of 2012?

Over the years, 
Santos and Eastern Star Gas have infected the Aquifers of the Pilliga State Forest that supply the recharge water to the Great Artesian Basin, with Sulphate-reducing Bacteria as well as other Bacteria and Archaea contained with-in the many discharges of CS Water and by the movement of ‘untreated’ Drill Rigs and Earth-Moving Equipment that contain water and soil upon themaround the surrounding  StateForest  and Private Properties.
Sore, will be as so bold as to say,”He doubts that either of these Companies or their Contractors has ever carried out a full Bacterial or any other type of full cleansing before moving any machinery to another site with-in the PEL238, and he doubts, they have even done a full cleansing of any machinery before leaving the previous place of operation and entering the PEL238.”
In the light of what is now common knowledge about the dangers of Bacteria from the Coal Seam and stimulation of them and their surface cousins by the discharges of CS Water and by the Drilling products contained in these waters. If these waters are allowed to enter the Aquifers before the Bentonite Clay, which is supposed to seal the aquifers off from any fluid exchange (a stated fact that there is water exchange between drill fluids and aquifer water, before any sealing can take place, by both Santos and Eastern Star Gas in many of the Review of Environmental Factors submitted to the Approving Authorities), then how far will the Bacteria, Archeae and Chemicals spread, and in what time frame?
There is enough proof and knowledge, most of it from the Industry it’s self, to show that this industry is destroying the water and soil quality for all time.

Below are just a few examples, some taken from the Internet, some from Australian Government Guidelines and others from first hand experience over almost 12 months, of how Sulphate-reducing Bacteria and a friend are effecting the Environment and why this Coal Seam Gas Industry should be stopped until the Science catches up and gets ahead of the Damaging effects that this industry by their own acknowledgement has exposed and caused.
Read and weep, because listed below are some admissions of what many already know, but the CSG Companies their Allies, many Governments and Politicians of all levels and unfortunately the vast majority of the population, just do not want to know or want anyone to know.

Not listed and or explained fully below are the following Bacteria and Archaea associated Sulphate-reducing Bacteria:Iron Reducing Bacteria (IRB), Iron Precipitating Bacteria (IPB), Hydrocarbon Utilizing (HUB), Naphthalene Utilizing (HUB), Coliforms-E. coli and Faecal, Photosynthetic Bacteria (PB), Methanogenic Bacteria:   Just to name a few that are directly associated with the Coal Seams and their Produced Water.  

Bacteria in the form of  Sulphur Reducing Bacteria and their relatives Archaea in the form of Methangens, most of which are Anaerobic (Oxygen intolerant) and in some rare case, Aerobic (Oxygen tolerant), go hand in hand to consume anything that contains Sulphur, Sulphate, Sulphide, thus producing Hydrogen Sulphide and in doing so they wreck havoc on the infrastructure of the Oil and Gas Industry, by consuming the Steel Well casings and dining on the Cement sealing. Their by-products can also attack Stainless steel in the form of Stress Corrosion, so nothing is safe from them.

A simplistic way that Methane is produced in the Coal Seams isolated from the atmosphere (Oxygen) is given below:
The SulphateReducing Bacteria creating Hydrogen Sulphide Gas while consuming  the Sulphate particles in their food source which in part is the saline water of the Coal Seam which contains large quantities of Sulphate as well as the Coal Seam and Structure material themselves, Hydrogen Sulphide (rotten egg gas), in contact with water forms an acid which ultimately becomes Sulphuric Acid),  thus producing Sulphide (sulfide)  it is at this point that the Methangens, who cannot tolerate Oxygen, come into play and produce Methane  from the Hydrogen in the Hydrogen Sulphide Gas or from the Sulphide and combining this with the Carbon Dioxide.
This simplistic chain as shown above is really a continuous loop, due to other Bacteria and Archaea that feed on the various by-products left over, and re-produce food that the Sulphate Reducing Bacteria and Methangens can consume.

What the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 6 2011, have to say about Sulphate Reducing Bacteria:
This is also the Drinking Water Guidelines for NSW (according to the NSW Department of Health) 
In Chapter 5 “Microbial quality of drinking water” 5.6.4 ‘Corrosion Problems due to Iron and Sulfur Bacteria’. There is a reinforcement of the Corrosive effect that these Bacteria have on cast iron and storage tanks as well as non metallic materials such as plastics, rubber jointing compounds and plastic lining materials, all of which provide organic nutrients and thus encourage the growth of microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential killer of Humans and Livestock.
Pseudomonas aeruginosais seen as a fluorescent Green (very like a rich emerald green colour).  A possible sighting 0f  this bacterium was photographed at Bohena 5
 just after the Drill Rig left the site and during the first rainfall after departure of that Rig. There had been Coal Seam Water spilt on the site during the plugging and abandoning of the well


    Possible Pseudomonas aeruginosa as seen at Bohena 5

  What Wikipedia has to say under Sulphate-reducing bacteria: problems caused by sulfate (sulphate)-reducing bacteria:
“sulfate(sulphate)-reducing bacteria create hydrogen sulfide(sulphide), which contribute to metal corrosion” .
“Hydrogen sulfide from sulfate-reducing bacteria also plays a role in the biogenicsulfide corrosion of concrete”  

What Danlin Drilling and Completion (this a US base drilling company): admission of the SRB problem and a Chemical to ensure that SRB is not transported from one place to another, but what will that chemical do to the good Bacteria in the ground water aquifers?
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) causes severe corrosion by producing hydrogen sulfide gas and iron sulfide solids
Sweet zones were becoming sour after completion and casing failures were occurring due to microbial attack from the bacteria introduced through the drilling and completion process“.
On the fly treatments have limited contact and mixing time allowing bacteria it survive and contaminate the well. The continuous injection and or batch treatment with (brand name)  will control the SRB contamination of the drilling fluids”

What Schlumberger had to say in the Summer of 2012 when referring SRB living in the North Sea Oil and Gas production water:
Microbes in these reservoirs not only lived in extreme conditions, they produced hydrogen sulphide [H2S]. Scouring, or increasing H2S, resulted from injection of sulphate-rich water in North Sea reservoirs and ultimately led to corrosion of both surface and down hole equipment” they go on further to say “MicrobiologicallyInfluenced Corrosion (MIC) is a common occurrence in the oil field and to control it, operators usually treat injected and produced water to mitigatemicrobial action. Complete sterilization of the water is impossible, and microbe control strategies have usually been directed toward disinfection—this is, reduction of microbe numbers to acceptable levels by killing a large portion of the population with a biocide.” “Recent research has shown biocides may not be as effective as previously thought—they may only injure or inhibit but not kill microbes”
Does this sound familiar? The Bacteria and Archaea are adapting to what is being thrown at them, this is because of the over use of chemicals in much the same way that the relatives of them have overcome the biocides used in Hospitals and other places.

Lastly what Santos has said, about the Sulphate-reducing Bacteria level as found in the Aquifer supplying a stock and domestic bore, in a letter dated 18-4-2012, and hand delivered the farmer (SORE) who lives next door to a Coal Seam Gas  Pilot Production Facility called Dewhurst 8 where many CS Water spills and overflowing of Drill ponds have occured since 2009 to 2012, and whose Aquifer suddenly in March of 2012, had a Sulphate-reducing Bacteria count of 2400 SRB/100mL:
Santos has now received that analysis and we provide an excerpt from the report below.You will see that it is showing higher than normal endotrophic plates. Santos’ consultants have advised that the well requires further examination and expressed a serious concern that water from this bore should not be used for domestic purposes”.
Further, our consultants has advised that the nutrients in the bacteria are probably not human nutrients but suggest they are animal nutrients“.
Could the “nutrients” be the dead and rotting Bacteria? We know from further testing at SORE’s own expense, that the Aquifer contains high levels of Methane and Sulphate-reducing Bacteria which produce Hydrogen Sulphide, these gases can kill large numbers of  any trestrial life that would otherwise not be effected by living in close proximity.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also one of the bacteria that is commonly referred to as Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUM). They are capable of living in diesel and jet fuel, where they cause microbial corrosion. It creates dark, gellish mats that are often mistaken for “algae” growths. These mats block filters and strainers if not attended too.
The name Pseudomonas aeruginosa translated from Greek and Latin means “false unit germ” “copper rust”. This describes the bacteria well as when seen in laboratories as a culture iy has a “blue-green” characteristic colour.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also capable adapting to both microaerobic or anaerobic conditions, it is this ability that is it its potential to kill, because it can live in the Lungs and other critical organs. Cystic fibrosis suffers are predisposed to this bacteria causing infection of the lungs.  Anything with a Lung conditions is at risk because this Bactriare acts with the surrounding mucoid cells to limit the diffusion of Oxygen, hence speeding up death if not treated.
It reduces the natural Immunity. It is also implicated in hot-tub rash.

This is just the start of the debate based on actual Science obtained from the documents put out by the ‘leaders’ in the CSG and Oil Industry, The Australian and NSW Governments, Australian based CSG Companies, and from Privately funded localised (to the Pilliga region) water and soil studies.  


Pilliga Well Pad Soil Dumped at Wilga Park

A growing mound of well pad soil contaminated with every chemical used to drill the wells, to assist in the plugging and abandonment of the test wells as well as being contaminated with the purposeful and careless remval of the highly toxic, saline and Bacterial carrying waters from the targeted Coal Seams.
This soil was first spotted in March when it was noticed that pad soil from Bohena 2 and Bohena 4/4L was being trucked from these locations to Wilga Park. Aerial photos of March and April 2012 confirmed the already taken ground photos of early March, and further confirmed by more ground photos taken late May.
This soil is hidden behind the large CS Water dam at Wilga Park, and is not in a lined pit, placed on plastic or in any way bunded. So it is obvious to all, that every time it rains the contents of what is in this soil will be transferred to the surrounding area via the watercourses, and of-course into the Aquifer systems of the Southern Recharge of the Great Artisan Basin, Australias’ greatest natural water resource.
The pad top soil was removed because the agreement with State Forests and the Rehabilitation of the well pads, required this to occur, as all parties knew it was Contaminated with may toxic Chemicals, Bacteria and CS Saline water.
Santos has always made a big thing of stating that this soil was to be taken to Newcastle for destruction, but in the PEL238 it was dumped in a very careless and non-environmentally friendly way at Wilga Park.
Another of Santos’ misleading statements and actions.
Photos that were taken early on, showed that Eastern Star Gas had, for once, had done the right thing, with the small quantities of pad soil removed from the private lands where test wells had been abandoned,  put on plastic and in pits. Santos came along, and now these pits have gone along with the soil they contained. There is just no trace of these pits, my guess, and this is based on aerial photos,  that Santos had this soil added to the pile taken from the well sites in the Pilliga Forest and hoped that no one would notice.
There is just too many incidents for this not to be, and forgive me for thinking this, but a deliberate attempt to change the characteristic of the Aquifer waters in the area, so they can claim, when eventually they are forced to do baseline water quality sampling, that the waters are of poor quality and that their best Water Treatment will be better than the value already there.
Santos, you have tried that once, and will not get away with it now or in the future. 

Daracon, was the Company responsible for the removal and depositing at Wilga Park, they have since left the area. 


Pilliga Forest and all Waters Poisoned by CSG

After  taking and looking at a cross section of Water and Soil samples taken from across the area that Eastern Star Gas/Santos have been actively operating in, there is a proven trail of complete and utter wilful dumping of CS (coal seam) Water in the area., which has and will continue to pollute and destroy the soils and waters of the Pilliga State Forest which is part of an area known as the Southern Recharge of the Great Australian Basin.
 This wilful dumping of CS water has been going on for at least 13 years with the evedence still available for all to see. (Bohena 7), and Bohena 2 to name just a very few.
The Bohena ponds at Bohena 1 South are a perfect example of the way evaporation ponds can introduce into the surrounding environment the toxic chemicals and water that is associated with this Gas extraction, and the unlined pond at Bohena 7 is a complete no-brain-er when it comes to complete Environmental protection.

 An extract of the soil and water analysis from Bohena 7 is as follows:
Soil:  a pH of 11.2, a Sodium level of 1700 ppm, Potassium of 70 ppm, Calcium of 20 ppm, Barium of 100 ppm, Manganese 0f 100 ppm, Chloride of 2960 ppm, Chromium of 10 ppm.
Water:  a pH of 9.93, a Sodium level of 1030 ppm, a total Alkalinity of 1720 ppm and lots of  metals with elevated readings.

An extract of the soil and water analysis from the area outside the Bohena Evaporation Ponds is as follows:
Soil:  a pH of 10.2, a Sodium level of 3150 ppm, Potassium of130 ppm, Calcium of 110 ppm, Barium of 70 ppm, Manganese of 55 ppm , Chloride of 2080 ppm, Chromium of 8 ppm.
Water: a pH of 8.04, a Sodium level of 175  ppm, total Alkalinity of 280 ppm, and lots of metals with elevated readings.

I have not looked at the quality of the discharge at the Bibblewindi Water Treatment Works that Santos released back in early 2012, but we already know, and Santos’ report can be quoted here, that the pH level and other Chemical levels have been dramatically changed from Acid levels of below 6 pH to a  level of above pH 9, and at a depth of 600 mm, and that this occurred over an alleged time frame of 6 months. So how far has the penetration into the soil and sub-surface Aquifers been at the Bohena Pond and the Bohena 7  off-sites, given that these areas have been left as is since at least 2005, and what about the earlier sites Bohena 2 and 3 along with all the rest.

I have only picked on two sites, Bohena 7 and the Bohena Ponds, because there was water and soil in combination available for testing. There are many sites across the Pilliga State Forest and indeed across the entire PEL238 where, since between 1999 and 2012, there have been deliberate discharges of CS water, all of which have a grave marker “Dead Ground and Vegetation” and were covered up by Governments, The Companies or Individuals or a combination of the previous mentioned.

I will mention that all these Chemicals and Salts are being carried into the Aquifers of the Great Australian Basin Souther Recharge. Whaever is spilt on the ground and penetrates the top 1 mm of the soil has entered the first Aquifer of the GAB ( see map on Home page for region of Southern Recharge Area of the GAB), from them on out it is full on into the GAB proper.

No Aquifer interference Policy will ever prevent what has already occurred from destroying Australia’s greatest source of wealth, “The waters of the GAB”, because the damage has already been done and will continue to be done as long as CSG is allowed to occur and the greedy Governments and Companies can get away with not providing the Science of the Gas Extraction process.

How will Governments and CSG Companies ever be able to bench-mark the true quality of the GAB waters in the Area of the Pilliga State Forest and the Recharge area, their data will always be of a suspect quality. I and others, know what it was like before the CSG Industry, with Government sanction, polluted the regions surface and the Aquifers that are the Southern Recharge area of the GAB and have the records to prove it, as well as the records to show how CSG Mining  has destroyed Aquifers by polluting them with the products of Drilling and extracted waters.

Santos as a warning: I have lots more proof of the inability to conduct CSG Mining with respect to: – the Environment – the Community around the area of operation – and to the Laws of the Nation, especially those that govern to extraction of CSG, its Licences and Approvals.


Santos is now repairing Dam Liners

Seen on the 12-5-12 on the wall of the No.3 Dam at the Bibblewindi Water Treatment and Gas Gathering Facility, a Membrane Repair Company.
What is wrong Santos?
 Do your Dam Liners leak because they have holes in them?
 Are they leaking CS water heavily polluted with the Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria bought up from the Coal Seams, and is this water leaking into the walls of the Dams thus weakening them, and putting the Ground and Surface Water at risk of serious Contamination?
Is this why the level in the No.3 Dam was lowered, so repairs could be made to the Liner so the Dam would not Collapse?
For how long has Santos known of the Faulty and Leaking Dam Liners?
Was it since Santos revisited the True Date of the Discharge at Bibblewindi and found it was not June 2011 but December 2011?    
Just curious, but has the DITIRS Maitland been told about your problems with a leaking liner? I know they were told about the Liners being under-cut and thus not supported and thus the liner is subject to a lot of stretching which it was not designed for, rather like stretching a bit of Glad wrap too much, that tears also.
 Well I hope that they have or are looking at and repairing the liner on the No.2 Dam.
It is strange that after all the complaints to the Supervisory Bodies, Eastern Star Gas and Santos, nothing was ever done, that is up until now.
Then again maybe not, these Gas Companies do nothing until they are boxed in, and exposed for the non compliant Companies they are.
It is really a pity that these so called respectable Gas Companies are such a bunch of Cowboys. I really thought the Santos was going to be different than Eastern Star Gas, but no it turns out that they are the same.
The liners in all the Evaporation and Coal Seam Water storage ponds, along with those that hold the concentrated water and Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB), are, at least here in the Pilliga area, well past their use-by dates and as the material underneath contains rock it is only a matter of time before  holes are worn in the liners, and this allows the Concentrated water to escape along with the Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria into the local environment and thus contaminate the local surface and ground water systems, and could lead to a collapse of a Dam Wall.
One other possibility is that maybe GEOTEST PTY LTD are doing a cavity check for void spaces behind the liner, like those discovered at the Bohena Ponds (and subject to an earlier article), which if not discovered will lead to a full or partial Dam Wall failure, and that can suddenly release a large volume of water that will cause a large Kill area like the one not found on any records at the Bibblewindi Water and Gas Gathering Facility.

SANTOS, YOU NEED TO COME CLEAN ABOUT THE PROBLEMS AT BIBBLEWINDI AND ACROSS THE ENTIRE PEL238 or are you hiding the evidence by turning over the remaining Black Surfaces as is being done at the Bibblewindi Spill Site? 


Santos’ explination of the Tree Kill at Bibblewindi stinks of a Cover-Up

Over the course of the next week I will be presenting facts, figures, actual Government and Santos Documents willl go to show that the material Santos provided as an explanation as to when the second of the discharges which caused an extended area ofTree die back/Kill occured, and how Santos tried to blame all the tre Kills/Die-backs and cover-ups on Eastern Star Gas, as purely misleading and an attempt to lead people and Governments, as if they need any encouragement, away from the real truth.
The page may be rewritten a few times to make the phrasing better, however I feel that this cover-up of the  Forest Kill/Die-back is so important to get out there, that my readers will understand if the lay-out changes but not the actual events, sitings, observations (photographed or witnessed) or documents.

Since seeing the Kill area at the Bibblewindi Water Treatment and Gas Gathering Facility, on December 30th 2011, and reporting it to the media the next day December 31th 2011, I have been recording the condition of the area, gathering Government Documents, studying all the Santos soil analysis as well as our own, taking samples of both soil and water from a fixed location, photographing same as well as other areas of the Kill, looking for a reason as to why such a large area was supposedly killed by “water-logging” and by a” discharge of 10,000 litres over a period of 5 hours in June 2011″. 
All the explinations, just did not add up, there was something more to the puzzle. There had to have been a massive quick uncontrolled discharge of at least 1000,000 litres to have caused the extent, shape of travel and the way certain areas were untouched as well as the area well over and above the official area given by Santos in February 2012 and the DTII in November 2011.
So where could this volume of water come from, only one explanation, and photographs taken on January 4th 2012, suggested the exact location on the Dam Wall of the No. 2 Dam, and my knowledge of the soils in the area, along with my experiences with these soils and my own water storage Dams, and the fact that Santos was furiously working to consolidate the wall of this dam, lead me to the conclusion that this dam had suffered a partial wall collapse, which allowed water to spill out in a rush and then stop, without emptying the entire dam, much the same way children let the sides of a swimming pool down and release a rush of water, andl to stop the flow when pressure on the wall is released.I always knew the answer, but I needed proof.
That proof came on Monday 23rd. April 2012, when at the Bohena Evaporation Ponds located at the Bohena 1 South well site, a large cavity was discovered which had under-cut the supporting soil under the liner (see article Sloppy Workmanship and Poor Supervision dated 29-4-12). As the soils at Bibblewindi and the Bohena Ponds are the same, and as this was unseen by the Contractor Daracon who consolidated the dams at this site in March 2012, it stands to reason that there was a similar but much larger cavity behind the wall and liner of the No. 2 Dam. Also recorded and shown to Santos was how the under-cutting starts (water seeps into the unconsolidated soil beside the liner, dissolves the clay from the soil leaving only sand and eventually a cavity is created by the water carrying away the binding material when it naturally escapes through out holes lower down in the Dam wall that it has made (see also photos in Article Sloppy Workmanship… 29-4-12). The wall at the No.2 Dam let go due to the either the internal pressure of the high water accumulated in the Dam by a combination of the rain even from July2011 to November 2011 and the fact that this dam is used to store “trucked-in water from other sites and has a discharge pipe from the Reverse Osmosis plant attached to allow excess water from the plant to be added to the water in the dam.
Why did not the entire liner come out and the entire contents of the dam be released? That can be answered very simply, the liner is buried into the soil of the dam top, and it retained the liner once the pressure upon the liner was lowered sufficiently to stop the action of pulling the liner from its anchoring point in the soil,was reached

Santos treats Safety as a Game and a Joke

Santos installed Safety Life-buoys at all of its Dams.
The only thing wrong is that Santos has made Safety into a game of Quoits.
Have a good look at the Life-buoys,see anything wrong?
That’s right NO SAFETY LINES.
These Life-buoys, as they are, are a one shot, hit or miss non-retrieval item, and we have not mentioned the poor person in difficulties in the Dam water.
Has Santos instructed their workforce on the correct procedure re-throwing and retrieving life-buoys.
You never throw at the person, but to the person, after all these life-buoys can pack a punch if they hit you. 
Santos has been told twice about this problem and like the Company Santos is, they have chosen to do the right thing and install ropes to the Life-buoys.
Santos really cares about nothing but their own self intrest and that of the bottom line profit.
Still who could blame Santosfor not being concerned about their work force, look at the attitude that that body of people have to others and the environment.

Sloppy Workmanship and Poor Supervision

Sloppy workmanship and poor supervision, led to the locating of the smoking gun that when added to photographs and the facts, many provided by Santos themselves, indicate that the Kill at the Bibblewindi Water Treatment Facility did not occur in June 2011, but occurred in December of 2011, and on the watch of Santos. But I have jumped the gun. I will now show you the smoking gun.
In December 2011 Santos embarked on a program of consolidating the Dam walls of all the water storage facilities over the entire State Forest operational area, and charged with doing this was the  out of town preferred contractor Daracon.
After completing the wall consolidation of the No 2 Dam at Bibblewindi they moved onto the dam at Bohena 3 and in March 2012 moved to the Bohena Ponds located at the Bohena 1 South site. You will note from the photographs the condition of the wall on the smaller of the dams.
the watts were under cut and badly eroded by the action of Rain and the fact that there was no binding material (grass) on the wall top or slopes, and that in this area spells Major problems, for we have soils that just dissolve in the wet and as they are not naturally tight setting, allow water to run down through them causing the erosion, that the sample photographs attached clearly show, and will form void spaces which may or may not be seen. Thus weakening the integrity of the walls.
One such example is shown. It is a void located behind a tear in the liner that “Blind Freddy” could see, and yet both Daracon and the Santos Inspector and site supervisor did not see.
The cavity was measured in the presence of Santos Representatives on Tuesday 24th April, The measurements were but a straight rod and found to have a void space behind the dam liner that was almost 1000 mm wide and 1100 mm deep the length was not accurately measured due to the tear in the liner being difficult to pull apart, however the measurement taken previously showed that it went close to 625 mm South and 750 mm North, this gives an approximate length of 1375 mm, big enough for a man the crawl into. The measurements were on a rigid rod, and are therefore not the true sizes, as it was noted the there was a swelling behind the liner 2500 mm down the liner close to the water level.
So, the methoid of wall consolidation was proven to be useless along with the fact that nobody saw this under-cut despite working all around the spot itself.

Santos you really have a very shoddy and sloppy workforce working for you in this area.

Worlds best practice, that is a joke, why a team of 10 year old’s could do better.




Dewhurst 8 the site of Red Dams

Dewhurst 8, a Pilot Production Gas Facility developed under the Exploration Licence PEL238 for Eastern Star Gas/Santos on private property next door to me and right next door to the Pilliga East State Forest, is the only place in the current area of Exploration in PEL238, where the water contained in the dams on site  is RED.
Not all the dams and flooded flare pits are this RED colour, in fact as observed in an aerial fly-over of the CSG Exploration and Power Station sites on March 3rd 2012 and April 21st 2012 confirmed that these were the only 2 Dams whose waters were RED. WHY?
Dewhurst 8 has a history of spillages, leaks and flood-overs, as well as over clearing, over the years since May 2008, all of which has been reported and ignored by the relevant NSW Government Departments and Politicians. I wonder why nothing was ever done and maybe will not be done despite the fact that these two Dams have RED water in them and Algae Blooms can be clearly seen in one.
Is the long arm of ex-politicians involved?

Santos you have many questions to answer.

CSG Drill sites promote Algae

 Monday 23rd April, a wet day here in the Pilliga State Forest, will go down as a day that Santos and the CSG industry will long regret, for it is this day that proof positive was found that the Chemicals and CS Water combine to produce a GREEN ALGAE BLOOM in waters that come into contact with areas where CS Water discharges have occurred.
 The pond shown is at Bohena 5 and was supporting a very healthy population of Spangled Perch and Mosquito Fish.
This old well was plugged by Santos in February 2012 and the Drill water supply was most probably emptied into the pond depression after the job was complete, and both species were introduced as either eggs or small hatch-lings.
Chemicals seen on site at this plugging were: Potassium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, Quickseal, and other Chemicals were in the covered trailer which was rapidly closed before complete naming could be made
The photos show the forming of the bloom soon after the water and chemicals leave the pad and enter the pond.
All the pads, areas off the pads,the areas around the Bohena Ponds as well as the area of spill from the Bibblewindi Treatment Facility also the areas around the spills at the Bibblewindi well spills, where the water can pool, show up this Emerald Green colouring when water comes into contact with the soil that has an oily like appearance that is associated with a CS Water discharges onto the surface of the ground.
 There must be good nutrients in the Chemicals that allow this Algae to flourish, and it is not only this Blue Green Algae that is seen associated with the CSG sites but a RED Algae as well (photos and location will go up soon).